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24 Nisan 2012 Salı

Crusades(The End)

 After the victory the Christians returned their countries. Before they left, they established new Christian countries in East. Also they established Kingdom of Jerusalem. After 50 years the Muslims decided to retake the places they lost. Especially the Turks wanted it. They tried to attack that new Christian countries. They wanted help from the Pope, so again they prepared new crusade army. This time many people didn't accept to join the army. They were tired and they weren't ready to take long ways, so this time the Christians were weaker.


The Christians planned to arrive Jerusalem, but this time they didn't do it. The Muslims were stronger and more ambitious. They got a victory, and they retook many of their old cities. That was dissappointment for Christians. After 40 years Muslims decided to retake Jerusalem. They collected many soldiers. This time Byzantine Empire was with them. They were uncomfortable from the pressure of the other European countries, so they made secret alliance wtih Muslims. This time Ayyubids were the strongest country in East. Saladin was the leader of the Muslims. He was great commander and leader. Richard I of England and Philip II of France commanded their armies very badly. They lost Jerusalem because of their mistakes.
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After that defeat Christians tried to attack Muslims again, but that time they had civil war between each other. They tried to arrange a new army, but these time they had problems about Constantinople, and they didn't go after that city. Even children joined the war, but that had terrible results. The Christians had plans to retake Jerusalem everytime, but they didn't do it anytime after they lost the city. After that wars the public understood one thing. The Pope and the rich people did everything for themselves. They understood many things after the Crusades. They didn't believe anybody. The Crusades are one of the biggest event in the World History.
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zqK-RuntywY
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pOPz5xPFTo&feature=relmfu


Crusades(The Events)

 In 1096 the crusade army gathered. They were strong enough to get a victory. In that army, there were Germans, Frenchs, Britishs, Byzantiums, Italians. There were nearly 40,000 people for crusade army. Pope Urban II was sure for victory. The Byzantine Empire had a fear. They didn't want to lose their order. because of that army. Many soldiers could stay in Byzantine Empire, because there was the reliable and close way to arrive Anatolia. They could create a big chaos in their country. They didn't give food and money to soldiers. They wanted to protect their places and money. Pope understood them, and they didn't give harm to anywhere in Byzantine Empire, and they arrived to Constantinople.

 The Turks in Anatolia was ready to defence. They did everything to protect the Muslims and their country. However the Christians were crowded. The Turks had stopped their power for a long time. The Christians arrived Antioch, the last point for Turks, in 1097. The won a big victory, but they didn't prepare easily to other wars, because they lost their power against to   Seljuq Turks.
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 In Summer 1098, they arranged their army in Antioch and moved to South. They fought against to Arabians. Abbasids were the strongest Arabian country in East, but they weren't blocking the Christians. They were really strong. In a year they arrived to Jerusalem, and in a month they conquered Jerusalem. The King Raymond gave permission to Arabians to leave the city. They didn't kill any soldiers after that, but some Muslims and Jews stayed in Jerusalem. The Christians killed that people to prove that they were the only owners of that city. That was an enormous victory for Christians. Their ambitious won all the wars. Everything was perfect for them. They got everything from East. They learnt big thing from East like science, medicine, culture and art. They really took important things after that war.


Crusades (The Beginning)

 In 1000's in the Europe, the people were uneducated. They were poor. The rich and noble people didn't think about that people. Misery was happening in Europe. In the churches people were trying to worship, but the clergy were lying and tricking these people. There were social classification all over the Europe. The aristocratics and clergy could make everything what they wanted. Poor people were doing everything for a good life. Also they were stealing money and food and killing people to get their money. At other side in East everything was perfect. The social culture, the science, the education, the medicine, the art and the other things were better than Europe. There were no social classification. People were in peace. Many people were Muslims in East, but they were respectful to other religions and people. That situation wasn't good for European people. They were angry and jealous. Also the holy place Jerusalem was in East and the Muslims were living there. They needed to do something. They decided to create crusader army.

The Pope Urban II created chaos for the poor public. He said that the Muslims were doing torture to Christians in East and in Jerusalem. Also he added that the Muslims weren't real owners of Jerusalem. He told they were destroying the city. He tried to trick them for a war. He said God will forgive them because of their crimes and sins. He created a very big army after that call. The poor people saw that a real change for their life. The main problem was the Seljuq Turks in Anatolia. They were a danger for Europe and the Byzantine Empire, so Byzantine Empire wanted help from Pope, and Pope Urban II planned to did everything in one time, so he accepted that call. Everything was starting after that events.
       

17 Nisan 2012 Salı

Siege of Vienna

 Sultan Suleiman I was the biggest emperor in the World in the beginnings of 1500's. He was the son of Selim I. He was conquering the everywhere. He came the last point in East. They had a big river after that point. There were no danger in East. In West the Empire was in the best point. They were planning to conquere Rome. They could arrive the England by this power. They started to call him as Suleiman the Magnificent.
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The new target was Vienna. The west countries knew that Ottomans were strong and they could win a victory. Also they could continue their victories in West and they could conquere Rome. They had fear. They could be their last change, because Ottoman Empire could be the only country in West. They could be leadder of the World. West countries decided to combine their powers. The Ottoman Empire was sure about the victory. They believed that they could win the war. In September 1529, Ottoman Empire arrived to Vienna. The west countries were ready to fight. The weather was terrible. The snowing started. It was so strange. It began too early. Everything was against to Ottomans. The soldiers didn't fight because of the weather. Some of them get ilness and lost power. Sultan Suleiman decided to return, because they couldn't fight in that weather. They were weak, so they returned. That event was very important in history. That siege could change the World. Maybe Ottoman Empire could arrive to England. It was one of the important siege in the World History.
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The First Defeat of Napoleon's Army

The last years of 1700's the Ottoman Empire started to lose power. They had chaos in country. They were trying to escape from the wars. They didn't want to fight, because they knew they could defeat. In that time Napoleon Bonaparte was the strongest emperor of the World. He was capturing many cities, countries. He wasn't defeating. He started to move along to East. He was attacking to Ottoman Empire's land. He was so strong, and the Ottomans were in their weak years. They didn't do anything to Napoleon.

Ottoman Empire decided to do something, because they could lose their all lands in East. They started to follow what they were doing in West. They watched what they had in their countries. Then the Ottoman Empire decided to take generals from the Europe. They prepared a new Ottoman Army. The Janissaries changed in all way. They weren't weak like the last years. They could defend their lands. Napoleon was in Egypt. He wanted to take control in Africa and in East. They wanted to be better than England. In 1798 Napoleon was in Acre. It was an Ottoman city in Jerusalem. Ottomans needed to defend the city. Because they wanted to show their new army and power. They didn't want to lose land in East anymore. The England's King decided to help to Ottomans, because Napoleon was a danger for them. Napoleon tried to capture Acre. The Ottomans and England army defended the city very well. New Ottoman Army was more strong. They were good. Napoleon couldn't accept the defaet, because he hadn't defeated. He accepted the defeat after a year. He was unhappy. He left the East after that war. Napoleon thought the Ottomans' religional beliefs won the victory. He thought he lost against to strong army and their beliefs. It was Napoleon first defeat. It was a huge victory for Ottoman Empire.File:Sir William Sidney Smith by John Eckstein.jpg

16 Nisan 2012 Pazartesi

Sultan Selim I

Sultan Selim was the 11th Ottoman Sultan. He was one of the most successful Sultan of Ottoman. With his leadership, Ottoman Empire became the only power in the Middle East. Sultan Selim was very aggressive and angry. His characteristics affected his life and his country. Maybe his ambition caused his death
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Sultan Selim was the son of Bayezid II and grandson of Mehmed II (Mehmed the Conquerer). He was borned in the North of Turkey. He had a normal childhood. As all the princes he spent his childhood far away from his family. In Ottoman Empire the young princes have to go to different cities because they have to learn how they could become a good emperor. His father Bayezid II decided to send Selim to Trabzon. Trabzon was very important city in Ottoman Empire at that time. It was near the Black Sea. Selim could learn everything in Trabzon. He started to work as governor of Trabzon. He learnt many things while he was doing his job. He learnt how he could manage the country, how he could fight, and he leant a lot of things about life. He had stayed in Trabzon for 29 years. He was very ambitious, and he thought that he was ready to control the throne. The janissaries, the Ottoman soldiers , supported him. His father wanted to leave his throne to his older son, but Selim didn't accept it. Finally he came to the capital Istanbul. He was so angry and he wanted his throne. Bayezid II didn't do anything to him. He accepted what he wanted, but he only wished one thing from Selim. He left the throne, after Selim accepted his father's wishes. Selim couldn't kill his brothers and his father. It was Bayezid's wishes, but Selim didn't listen to his father's wishes. He killed his brothers after his father left. His father was going to his hometown Edirne while Selim killed his brothers. Unhappily, he also planned his father's death. He gave a poison food to his father. Bayezid II died on the way. Sultan Selim was a big emperor. He fought against to Persians, he won big victories in East. He captured the religional places. He was in Holy lands. He was the new caliph of the Islam World. He was really good warrior and director, but he was a cruel. He killed many innocent people. He did many painful torture the public where he captured new lands. After years of he had a boil on his back, but he didn't know what it is. It was gave a pain to him. One day his vizier was with him. He wanted help from him. They tried to dissolve this problem, but they increased the illness. He got the skin cancer. He wanted to go Edirne to get healthy. However he died on the way, where his father died.
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30 Kasım 2011 Çarşamba

Battle of Manzikert

Before 1071 there weren't any Turk in Anatolia. They were living in Central Asia. They were battling against Chinese when they were in Asia. They were tired. They didn't want to battle. The Chinese were attacking to Turks all the time. They needed peace. The people were dying because of the battles. They were immigratig for escape from the Chinese. They wanted to have a homeland. After that time Seljuq Turks started to search a homeland. The leader of Seljuq Turks, Alp Arslan found an area to reside. That area was Anatolia. It was very suitable homeland for Turks. They could do everything in that area. They could agriculture in Anatolia, so they could live there forever. Alp Arslan was a Mogol-Turk. His religion was Islam and he was fearless. Alp Arslan wasn't his real name. His real name was Muhammed bin Da'ud Chaghri. Alp Arslan was his nickname. People were calling him as "Alp Arslan", which means 'Heroic Lion' in Turkish.

They returned to their home. Alp Arslan gave the good news to others. He was happy, because they could have a new home. He analyzed the area very well, before he was leaving. He knew it wasn't easy to conquer there. In 1000's the Byzantine Empire was one of the strongest country in Europe. They had large area on the World and they had Anatolia. Turks needed a victory against to Byzantines for having Anatolia. They were small group, but they were very brave. They had belief for victory. Before the war, the Anatolia was in that situation. The purple area is showing the Byzantine territory and the red is showing Byzantine's attack, the green is showing Turks' attack. Before the Battle of Manzikert, Turks attacked the other parts of Anatolia, and they captured some cities. The Byzantium's
Emperor Romanos IV heard the battles. He decided to attack them. He collected very big army. He wanted help from the churches. The religion men wanted help from the other Christians. Romanos took this help from the other countries. His army had nearly 200.000 people. However Turks had only 30.000 people in their army. Romanos Iv made good attacks on Turks. He got good victories, but he wanted to destroy the Seljuq Turks, so he attacked to Seljuq Turks in Manzikert. There was a Turks' castle in Manzikert.





Alp Arslan had spies in Byzantine's army. He knew what Romanos IV decided to do. He exactly knew where he was, what he planned, so he was ready for everything. Romanos IV moved on to Manzikert. He was sure for the victory. He needed to choose a general for the important mission. He choosed Andronikos Doukas. His decision was very big suprise, because Doukas wanted to be an emperor. He didn't want Romanos IV on the top. In the war Romanos IV couldn't take help from him, but he didn't think about him, because he believed for victory. He knew that he could have very big fame in his country after the victory. He was dreaming it. He saw the Turkish army, they were escaping. He thought that they were afraid. He started to follow them. They ran and ran, however Turks were very fast. They couldn't catch them. They started to get tired. At this time Turkish archers attacked them, but still Romanos IV continued to attack. He lost many soldiers while they were attacking, but he didn't notice it. Then Turks returned and started to attack them. Romanos IV saw his soldiers were escaping. Then he saw his commanders. They were running away. In front Doukas was running away. Romanos IV understood that he lost the war. He accepted the defeat.



After the victory Alp Arslan took captive Romanos IV and they made that conversation:

          Alp Arslan: "What would you do if I were brought before you as a prisoner?"

Romanos: "Perhaps I'd kill you, or exhibit you in the streets of Constantinople."
Alp Arslan: "My punishment is far heavier. I forgive you, and set you free."

Alp Arslan showed his kindness to him. He didn't persecute him. He tried to create a peace. He offered a treaty to Romanos. Byzantine Empire accepted to give 360.000 gold to Turks each year. Alp Arslan married with Romanos IV's daughter. Romanos accepted Turks' living on Anatolia. After Romanos returned to Byzantine Empire, he was killed. This victory gave a new homeland to Turks. Still Turks are living in Anatolia.